Heparin affin regulatory peptide/pleiotrophin negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells

Eur J Cell Biol. 2008 Jan;87(1):17-29. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2007.07.007. Epub 2007 Sep 18.


Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) or pleiotrophin seems to be involved in the progression of several tumors of diverse origin. In this study, we tried to determine the role of HARP in rat C6 glioma cells by using an antisense strategy for inhibition of HARP expression. Decrease of the expression of endogenous HARP in C6 cells (AS-C6 cells) significantly increased proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth of cells. Implantation of AS-C6 cells onto chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes resulted in a significant increase of tumor-induced angiogenesis compared with that induced by non-transfected or C6 cells transfected with the plasmid alone (PC-C6 cells). In the same line, conditioned medium from AS-C6 cells significantly increased endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro compared with the effect of conditioned medium from C6 or PC-C6 cells. Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced C6 cell proliferation and migration, and SU1496, a selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), blocked increased glioma cell growth, migration, and angiogenicity observed in AS-C6 cell cultures. The above results seem to be due to a direct interaction between HARP and VEGF in the culture medium of C6 and PC-C6 cells, while AS-C6 cells secreted comparable amounts of VEGF that do not interact with HARP. Collectively, these data suggest that HARP negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells, mainly due to binding of HARP to VEGF, which may sequester secreted VEGF from signalling through VEGFR2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement* / drug effects
  • Cell Movement* / genetics
  • Cell Proliferation* / drug effects
  • Chick Embryo
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic* / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic* / genetics
  • Glioma / pathology
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology
  • Protein Binding
  • Rats
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Transfection
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / pharmacology
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / genetics
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism*


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cytokines
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • vascular endothelial growth factor A, rat
  • pleiotrophin
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2