Background/objectives: Dietary factors have been associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) in healthy individuals and specific ethnic groups. To evaluate possible associations of usual dietary factors with the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
Subjects/methods: In this cross-sectional study, 214 patients with type 2 DM without dietary counseling during previous 6 months were studied. After clinical and laboratory examinations, dietary intake was evaluated by 3-day weighed-diet records, whose reliability was confirmed by 24-h urinary nitrogen output. The presence of MS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation.
Results: Patients with MS (n=174) had a lower intake of total (16.7 +/- 6.2 vs 19.5 +/- 6.5 g day(-1); P=0.010) and soluble fibers (5.3 +/- 1.8 vs 6.0 +/- 2.7 g day(-1); P=0.011) than patients without MS. In multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for gender and DM duration, variables associated with MS were soluble fibers (OR=0.86; 95% CI=0.74-0.98; P=0.046), soluble fibers from whole-grain foods (OR=0.43; 95% CI=0.25-0.76; P=0.002) and soluble fibers from fruits (OR=0.76; 95% CI=0.62-0.95; P=0.017). Whole-grain and fruits were the foods negatively associated with MS.
Conclusions: The intake of soluble fibers, particularly from whole-grain foods and fruits, may have a protective role for the presence of MS in this selected sample of patients with type 2 DM.