Effects of neck flexion on contingent negative variation and anticipatory postural control during arm movement while standing

J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2009 Feb;19(1):113-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2007.08.003. Epub 2007 Sep 19.


We investigated the effects of neck flexion on contingent negative variation (CNV) and anticipatory postural control using an arm flexion task in standing. CNV was adopted to evaluate the state of activation of brain areas related to anticipatory postural control. Subjects were required to flex the arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Two different intervals (2.0 and 3.5s) between these two stimuli were used in neck position in quiet standing (neck resting) and neck position at 80% angle of maximal neck flexion. The mean amplitude of CNV 100-ms before the response stimulus, recorded from a Cz electrode, was calculated. Onset timing of activation of the postural muscles (lumbar paraspinal, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius) with respect to the anterior deltoid was analyzed. Reaction time at the anterior deltoid was significantly shorter in the 2.0s period than in the 3.5s period, and in the neck flexion than in the neck resting in both periods. In the 2.0s, but not in the 3.5s period, neck flexion resulted in an increased CNV amplitude and an increased duration of preceding activation of the postural muscles, and the correlation between these increases was significant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acoustic Stimulation
  • Adult
  • Arm / physiology*
  • Contingent Negative Variation*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Electromyography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Neck / physiology*
  • Neck Muscles / physiology
  • Postural Balance / physiology*
  • Posture
  • Young Adult