Groin injury is among the most common cited injuries in the sports of ice hockey, soccer, Australian Rules football, calisthenics and cricket. There are very few prospective studies examining risk factors for groin strain injury in sport. There is support for an association of previous injury and greater abductor to adductor strength ratios as well as sport specificity of training and pre-season sport-specific training, as individual risk factors in groin strain injury in athletes. Core muscle weakness or delayed onset of transversus abdominal muscle recruitment may increase the risk of groin strain injury. Debate exists in the literature regarding the role of adductor strength and length as well as age and/or sport experience as risk factors for groin injury. There is no strong evidence to support a causal association for any of these risk factors and groin injury.