Microalbuminuria and the metabolic syndrome and its components in the Chinese population

Eur J Clin Invest. 2007 Oct;37(10):783-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2007.01865.x.


Background: Microalbuminuria and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have both been linked to chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association between urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and MetS and its components.

Materials and methods: A total of 2311 subjects aged 40 years and over were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The biochemical indices, such as fasting glucose levels, urinary albumin, urinary creatinine and anthropometric indices, were measured. We defined microalbuminuria as a urinary ACR ranging from 30 to 300 mg g(-1) creatinine. MetS was defined using the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The relationship between MetS and microalbuminuria was examined using multiple logistical regression analysis.

Results: Subjects with microalbuminuria had higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TCHOL)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension and lower HDL-C than subjects with normoalbuminuria. After adjusting for age and BMI, microalbuminuria was associated with the individual components of MetS, except in central obesity in women and elevated fasting glucose in men. After adjusting for age, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption status, multiple logistical regressions revealed that microalbuminuria is strongly associated with MetS in both genders and according to both definitions. The odds ratio of having MetS using the AHA/NHLBI and IDF definition was 1.76 (1.16-2.67) and 1.73 (1.06-2.83) in men and 2.19 (1.38-3.50) and 2.09 (1.24-3.51) in women, respectively.

Conclusions: Microalbuminuria was strongly associated with MetS and its components. There is an increased likelihood of having MetS if subjects have microalbuminuria.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / complications
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology*
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sex Distribution
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Taiwan / epidemiology


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose