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, 10 (4), 408-14

Determinants of Changes in Bone Density: A 5-year Follow-Up Study of Adult Male Monozygotic Twins

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Determinants of Changes in Bone Density: A 5-year Follow-Up Study of Adult Male Monozygotic Twins

Tapio Videman et al. J Clin Densitom.

Abstract

The relative importance of determinants in bone mineral density (BMD) in adult men is partly unclear. Our goals were to investigate the effects of familial aggregation and behavioral factors on the change in BMD during a 5-yr follow-up. Subjects (n=140) were 70 exposure-discordant monozygotic twin pairs (age 35-69 yr). BMD was measured with the same dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner at baseline and at the 5-yr follow-up. A variety of covariates were used including physical examination and interview data. Multivariate linear regression was used. The mean annual decrease in femoral BMD was 0.2%. The mean lumbar BMD was unchanged, although 8-17% of subjects had a decrease of more than 5%. Familial aggregation explained 14% of the changes in femoral BMD and 19% in lumbar BMD. The stability of BMD in the follow-up was high, both for individuals (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.90-0.94) and for co-twins in a pair (ICC=0.77-0.84). In femoral BMD, use of alcohol (p=0.006), coffee (p=0.046), and beta-blockers (p=0.043) led to increases, whereas smoking led to a decrease (p<0.01). We concluded that frequent increases in BMD, influenced by beta-blockers, partly explain the minor mean changes during follow-up; however, about every 10th subject had a significant decrease. Overall, familial effects played a dominant role in BMD changes in adult men.

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