Our aim was to obtain a viable and easily available dermal substitute (DS) for the definitive coverage of full-thickness burns. A DS composed of a collagen-glycosaminoglycan-chitosan dermal matrix (DM) colonized with foreskin fibroblasts (FF) is described. FF-colonized DS were compared to the DM seeded with adult dermal fibroblasts (DF). FF-colonized DS expressed more fibrillin and tropoelastin than that with DF. Reconstructed skin obtained with both FF- and DF-colonized DS similarly expressed laminin-5 and collagen VII at the dermal-epidermal junction. Both FF- and DF-colonized DS produced cutaneous wound healing mediators in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of platelet lysate. After freeze-thawing, the FF-colonized DS were recovered in culture and retained their ability to produce vascular endothelial growth factor. Grafting of DS into nude rats achieved a complete healing of a dermal-epidermal lesion with a good epidermalization.