Lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Ann Thorac Surg. 2007 Oct;84(4):1121-8. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.04.096.


Background: Outcomes of lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are thought to be worse than those for other indications, although the reasons are unknown. In addition, the choice of single versus double lung transplantation is unclear. To guide decision-making, we (1) compared survival of patients receiving transplantation for IPF with survival of patients receiving transplantation for non-IPF diagnoses, (2) identified risk factors for mortality after transplantation for IPF, and (3) ascertained whether double lung transplantation for IPF confers a survival advantage.

Methods: From February 1990 to November 2005, 469 patients underwent lung transplantation, 82 for IPF. Multiphase hazard modeling was used to identify risk factors, and propensity matching was used to compare survival of IPF and non-IPF patients and to assess the effect of single versus double lung transplantation.

Results: Survival estimates after transplantation for IPF were 95%, 73%, 56%, and 44% at 30 days and 1, 3, and 5 years, somewhat worse than for matched non-IPF patients (p = 0.03). Risk factors for mortality were earlier date of transplantation (p = 0.07), single lung transplantation (p = 0.03), and higher wedge pressure (p = 0.003). Survival for double versus single lung transplantation was 81% versus 67% at 1 year and 55% versus 34% at 5 years; however, among matched non-IPF patients, corresponding survivals were 88% versus 71% at 1 year and 72% versus 48% at 5 years (p = 0.3).

Conclusions: Survival after lung transplantation for IPF is worse than after other indications for transplantation when multiple clinical variables are accounted for. Survival may be improved by double lung transplant.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cause of Death*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Graft Rejection
  • Graft Survival
  • Humans
  • Lung Transplantation / methods*
  • Lung Transplantation / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis / mortality
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis / surgery*
  • Reference Values
  • Respiratory Function Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome