Limonoids are a prominent group of secondary metabolites in citrus fruit. The bitter character of some compounds in this group has historically compromised the quality of citrus fruit and juice. Detecting bitter limonoids in citrus, understanding their origins, and developing methods for their removal from citrus juices have provided the basis for citrus limonoid research. Evaluation of the biological activity of citrus limonoids has indicated the potential of these compounds to improve human health as anticancer, cholesterol-lowering, and antiviral agents. This review chronicles the evolution of citrus limonoid research from defining their participation in citrus bitterness to their potential utilization as important contributors to improving human health and well-being.