Inherited mitochondrial diseases of DNA replication

Annu Rev Med. 2008;59:131-46. doi: 10.1146/annurev.med.59.053006.104646.

Abstract

Mitochondrial genetic diseases can result from defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the form of deletions, point mutations, or depletion, which ultimately cause loss of oxidative phosphorylation. These mutations may be spontaneous, maternally inherited, or a result of inherited nuclear defects in genes that maintain mtDNA. This review focuses on our current understanding of nuclear gene mutations that produce mtDNA alterations and cause mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS), progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), ataxia-neuropathy, or mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). To date, all of these etiologic nuclear genes fall into one of two categories: genes whose products function directly at the mtDNA replication fork, such as POLG, POLG2, and TWINKLE, or genes whose products supply the mitochondria with deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools needed for DNA replication, such as TK2, DGUOK, TP, SUCLA2, ANT1, and possibly the newly identified MPV17.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • DNA Replication / physiology*
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Mitochondrial Diseases / genetics*
  • Mutation / genetics*

Substances

  • DNA, Mitochondrial