Background: This study describes changes in social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation and examines the influence of clinical factors, health status, transplantation-related symptoms, and psychological characteristics on change in social participation.
Methods: A prospective study was performed on a cohort of primary kidney transplant recipients, transplanted between March 2002 and March 2003. Data on participation in obligatory activities (i.e., employment, education, household tasks) and leisure activities (i.e., volunteer work, assisting others, sports, clubs/associations, recreation, socializing, going out) were collected by in-home interviews (n=61) at 3 months (T1) and 1 year posttransplantation (T2). Analysis of covariance was performed.
Results: Data showed an increase in participation in obligatory activities and diversity of leisure participation between T1 and T2, although pre-end-stage renal disease level was not regained and differed from the general population. On T1, the majority of employed recipients were on sick leave, but returned to work on T2. Employment rate remained stable. An increase in obligatory participation was predicted by clinical factors (i.e., peritoneal dialysis, initial hospitalization), whereas change in leisure participation was related to serum albumin and cognitive capacity. No effects were found for type of donation, comorbidity, and renal function.
Conclusions: We found that mainly clinical factors were associated with an increase in participation in society. Although health-status related factors and the psychological attribute self-efficacy may be related to recovery of social participation, their effect was outweighed by the strength of clinical predictors in multivariate analysis.