To realize the full scientific and clinical potential of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-cardiomyocytes, strategies to overcome the high degree of heterogeneity of differentiated populations are required. Here we demonstrate the utility of two transgenic approaches in enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from HUES-7 cells: (i) negative selection of proliferating cells with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSVtk/GCV) suicide gene system; and (ii) positive selection of cardiomyocytes expressing a bicistronic reporter [green fluorescent protein (GFP)-internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-puromycin-N-acetyltransferase (PAC)] from the human alphamyosin heavy chain promoter. Parental and transgenic HUES-7 cells were similar with regard to morphology, pluripotency marker expression, differentiation, and cardiomyocyte electrophysiology. Whereas immunostaining of dissociated cardiomyocyte preparations expressing HSVtk or PAC contained <7% cardiomyocytes, parallel cultures treated with GCV or puromycin, respectively, contained 33.4 +/- 2.1% or 91.5 +/- 4.3% cardiomyocytes corresponding to an enrichment factor of 6.7- or 14.5-fold. Drug-selected cardiomyocytes responded to chronotropic stimulation and displayed cardiac-specific action potentials, demonstrating that functionality was retained. Both transgenic strategies will be generically applicable and should readily translate to the enrichment of many other differentiated lineages derived from hESCs.