Non-enzymatic modification of proteins by reducing sugars, a process that is also known as Maillard reaction, leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vivo. It is now well established that formation and accumulation of AGEs progress during normal aging, and at an extremely accelerated rate under diabetes, thus being implicated in various types of AGE-related disorders such as diabetic vascular complications, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. Further, there is accumulating evidence that AGEs and their receptor RAGE interaction elicits oxidative stress generation and subsequently alters gene expression in various types of cells. In addition, digested food-derived AGEs are found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the AGE-related disorders as well. Indeed, restriction of diet-derived AGEs not only blocks the progression of atherosclerosis and renal injury, but also improves insulin resistance in animal models. AGE-poor diets reduce serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with diabetes or chronic renal failure. These observations suggest that the restriction of food-derived AGEs or the inhibition of absorption of dietary AGEs may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in the AGE-related disorders. In this paper, we review the pathological role of food-derived AGEs in various types of disorders and discuss the potential utility of oral adsorbent that inhibits the absorption of AGEs in these devastating diseases.