Acquired immunity disturbances in hemodialysis (HD) patients are many and diverse. They are caused by uremia per se, the HD procedure, chronic renal failure complications, and therapeutic interventions for their treatment. Current data suggest that acquired immunity disturbances in HD patients concern mainly the T-lymphocyte and the antigen-presenting cell (APC). The T-lymphocyte-dependent immune response is deficient, predisposing to infections and inadequate response to vaccinations. In addition, APCs are preactivated, which seems to be responsible for the malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome, and also affects T-lymphocyte function. At the molecular level it is assumed that the interaction between the APC and the T-lymphocyte is impaired. This disturbance is likely to concern the signal that results from the interaction between the major histocompatibility complex:peptide complex on APC surfaces and T-cell receptors on T-lymphocyte surfaces, or the signal that results from the interaction among the co-receptors of these two cells. The aim of the present review was to collect and classify the available clinical and experimental data in this area. Although many pieces are still missing from the puzzle, a better understanding of the responsible molecular mechanisms, will potentially lead to increased survival and a better quality of life in HD patients.