Role of the friction free distalize appliance (2FDA)PAT in the molar distalization: photoelastic analysis and alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) activity on first molar and bicuspid

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. Jan-Mar 2007;20(1 Suppl 1):61-7. doi: 10.1177/039463200702001s13.


Maxillary molar distalization is an increasingly popular option for the resolution of Class II malocclusions. This study describes the effects of one particular molar distalizing appliance, the Friction Free Distalize Appliance (2FDA), in a sample of 20 consecutively treated and growing patients to verify the osteoblastic activity in the compression and traction sites of both the molars and the bicuspids when used as the anchorage teeth. The 2FDA appliances were constructed utilizing a Nickel Titanium open coil spring of 200 gr force in order to distalize the maxillary first molar. The reaction force was controlled utilizing the principle of low/free friction. The results show that the resin around the root of the bicuspid did not discolour at all, which indicates an absence of a force load. On the other hand, on the molar, the resin around the root of the molar became discoloured due to the fact that an orthodontic force was involved with the tooth. To better understand whether the quantity of force that reached the tooth was able to produce osteoblastic recruitment in the sites of tension of the molar and the bicuspid, we quantified an enzyme, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP), present. This measurement allowed us to verify a regular increase of the ALP on the site of molar traction. We also elaborated a mathematical model to evaluate the quantity of force of reaction that produces the device on the bicuspid. Such force results as being 8.34 grams which equals half the pressure of the capillaries of the parodontal ligament (18 grams). The 2FDA appliance compares favourably with other intra-oral distalization devices for the resolution of patients with Class II malocclusions, and is the only distalizing appliance that does not determine osteoclastic/osteoblastic recruitment on the anchorage tooth.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism*
  • Bicuspid / enzymology*
  • Humans
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class II / therapy*
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Molar / enzymology*
  • Orthodontic Appliance Design
  • Orthodontic Appliances*
  • Osteoblasts / physiology
  • Tooth Movement Techniques / instrumentation*


  • Alkaline Phosphatase