Although inflammation is an essential component of the protective response to fungi, its dysregulation may significantly worsen fungal diseases. We found here that the IL-23/IL-17 developmental pathway acted as a negative regulator of the Th1-mediated immune resistance to fungi and played an inflammatory role previously attributed to uncontrolled Th1 cell responses. Both inflammation and infection were exacerbated by a heightened Th17 response against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, two major human fungal pathogens. IL-23 acted as a molecular connection between uncontrolled fungal growth and inflammation, being produced by dendritic cells in response to a high fungal burden and counter-regulating IL-12p70 production. Both IL-23 and IL-17 subverted the inflammatory program of neutrophils, which resulted in severe tissue inflammatory pathology associated with infection. Our data are the first demonstrating that the IL-23/IL-17 pathway promotes inflammation and susceptibility in an infectious disease model. As IL-23-driven inflammation promotes infection and impairs antifungal resistance, modulation of the inflammatory response represents a potential strategy to stimulate protective immune responses to fungi.