Psychopathological sequelae of the 11 March terrorist attacks in Madrid : an epidemiological study of victims treated in a hospital

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008 Feb;258(1):28-34. doi: 10.1007/s00406-007-0758-7. Epub 2007 Sep 27.


Objective: To describe the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety disorders, or any other mental disorder among adult victims treated in a hospital at different points in time after the 11 March 2004 terrorist attacks in Madrid.

Design, setting, and participants: A random sample of 56 individuals injured in the attacks was interviewed in person at one, six, and twelve months after the attacks.

Main outcome measures: Current DSM-IV mental disorders: depressive disorders and anxiety disorders (PTSD, generalised anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, and panic disorder) were assessed with the Spanish version of the MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), a structured, lay-administered psychiatric interview.

Results: PTSD was the most prevalent psychiatric disorder (35.7% at month 1, 34.1% at month 6, and 28.6% at month 12), followed by major depression (28.6%, 22.7%, and 28.6%, respectively). Others relevant conditions were suicide risk, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), agoraphobia, and panic disorder. No significant differences in the prevalence of the disorders were found between the different assessment times. Patients with a psychiatric history prior to 11 March had a higher prevalence of PTSD, major depression, GAD, and panic disorder at month 1. Females had higher prevalence of PTSD, agoraphobia, and panic disorder at month 1. The only predictive factor for PTSD at month 12 was PTSD at month 6 (OR = 14.007). The only predictive factor for major depression at month 12 was major depression at month 6 (OR = 15.847).

Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD and major depression was high and remained stable between month 1, month 6, and month 12. The only predictive factor for PTSD at month 12 was PTSD at month 6.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Data Collection
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Interview, Psychological
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Sex Factors
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / epidemiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / etiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Telephone
  • Terrorism / psychology*
  • Time Factors