Palliative care is comprehensive, interdisciplinary care focusing on pain and symptom management, advance-care planning and communication, psychosocial and spiritual support, and, in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the ethical issues in dialysis decision making. End-of-life care is one aspect of palliative care and incorporates all of the previously mentioned components as well as hospice and bereavement care. ESRD patients and their families are appropriate candidates for palliative care because of their high symptom burden, shortened survival, and significant comorbidity. The usual pattern of illness trajectory in ESRD is a progressive decline punctuated by episodes of acute deterioration prompted by sentinel events like limb amputation or myocardial infarction. Such events provide opportunities for advance-care planning and communication between providers and patients and families. Although communication is an integral component of palliative care, little is understood about effective provider-patient communication, especially in estimating and discussing prognosis. Palliative care has much to offer toward improving the quality of dialysis patients' lives as well as planning for and improving the quality of their deaths. The palliative care issues of illness trajectory, communication, and hospice use among ESRD patients will be reviewed.