Protection Afforded Against Aerosol Challenge by Systemic Immunisation With Inactivated Francisella Tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS)

Microb Pathog. 2008 Feb;44(2):164-8. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2007.08.009. Epub 2007 Aug 21.


BALB/c mice were immunised with inactivated Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) and the level of protection afforded against aerosol challenge with virulent strains of F. tularensis ascertained. Intramuscular (IM) injection of inactivated LVS with an aluminium-hydroxide-based adjuvant-stimulated IgG1-biased LVS-specific antibody responses and afforded no protection against aerosol challenge with subspecies holarctica (strain HN63). Conversely, IM injection of inactivated LVS adjuvanted with preformed immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMS) admixed with immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides afforded robust protection against aerosol-initiated infection with HN63. However, despite a significantly extended time-to-death relative to naïve controls, the majority of mice immunised with the most potent vaccine formulation were not protected against a low-dose aerosol challenge with subspecies tularensis (strain Schu S4). These data indicate that parenterally administered non-living vaccines can be used for effective immunisation against aerosol challenges with subspecies holarctica, although not high virulence strains of F. tularensis.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage
  • Aerosols
  • Aluminum Hydroxide / administration & dosage
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology*
  • Female
  • Francisella tularensis / immunology*
  • ISCOMs / administration & dosage
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / administration & dosage
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tularemia / immunology
  • Tularemia / prevention & control*
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Aerosols
  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • CPG-oligonucleotide
  • ISCOMs
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Aluminum Hydroxide