Malformations of cortical development and epilepsy: evaluation of 101 cases (part II)

Turk J Pediatr. 2007 Apr-Jun;49(2):131-40.


Malformations of cortical development (MCD) form a spectrum of lesions produced by insult to the developing neocortex. Clinical presentation and electrophysiologic findings of MCD are variable and depend on the affected cortical area. We evaluated epilepsy, EEG, and response to antiepileptic treatment in patients with MCD with respect to the neuroimaging findings. We studied 101 patients, ranging between 1 month and 19 years of age. Fifty-four patients were diagnosed with polymicrogyria (PMG), 23 patients with lissencephaly, 12 patients with schizencephaly, and 12 patients with heterotopia. With regards to epilepsy and seizure type, 72/101 (71.3%) patients had epilepsy, and 62/101 (61.4%) patients presented with seizures. Overall, 32.7% of patients had generalized seizures, and 25.7% had complex partial seizures. Mean age at the onset of seizures was 2.7 +/- 3.4 years. The onset of epilepsy tended to be younger in patients with lissencephaly and older in patients with heterotopias. Of the cases, 79.2% had abnormal EEG (56.3% with epileptiform abnormality, 22.9% with non-epileptiform abnormality). EEG was abnormal in 44.9% (13/29) of the cases without epilepsy. EEG showed bilateral synchronous and diffuse epileptiform discharges in 90% of patients with lissencephaly. Patients with schizencephaly had mostly focal epileptiform discharges. Heterotopia cases had a high rate of EEG abnormalities (72.7%). Patients with PMG had epileptiform abnormality in 59.5% of the cases. Patients with heterotopias and PMG achieved better seizure control in comparison with the other groups. In conclusion, epilepsy is the most common problem in MCD. Epilepsy and EEG findings of patients with MCD are variable and seem to be correlated with the extent of cortical involvement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cerebral Cortex / abnormalities*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electroencephalography
  • Epilepsy / diagnosis
  • Epilepsy / epidemiology
  • Epilepsy / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Nervous System Malformations / complications*
  • Nervous System Malformations / diagnosis
  • Nervous System Malformations / epidemiology
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Turkey / epidemiology