Many benign breast lesions pose diagnostic challenges. These lesions include abscess, haematoma, radial scar, post surgical scar, diabetic mastopathy, focal fibrosis, sclerosing adenosis, granular cell tumour, extra-abdominal desmoid tumour, medial insertion of pectoralis muscle and sternalis muscle, and axillary lymphadenopathy (due to HIV infection, collagen vascular lesions, tuberculous and bacterial lymphadenitis). Radiologists should be familiar with the characteristic imaging features of these benign lesions, and should include these benign lesions in the differential diagnosis whenever malignant-appearing findings are encountered. Correlation of the patient's clinical features with the mammographical findings and additional use of ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy are helpful in establishing the final diagnosis and obviating unnecessary surgical intervention. In some of these lesions, surgery may be avoided while in others, the appropriate surgical procedure may be planned. This pictorial essay aims to illustrate the mammographical features of these lesions in a group of proven cases.