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. 2007;189(5):423-33.
doi: 10.1016/j.aanat.2006.10.008.

"A New Lachrymal Gland With an Excretory Duct in Red and Fallow Deer" by Johann Jacob Harder (1694): English Translation and Historical Perspective

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"A New Lachrymal Gland With an Excretory Duct in Red and Fallow Deer" by Johann Jacob Harder (1694): English Translation and Historical Perspective

Willem J Hillenius et al. Ann Anat. .

Abstract

The Harderian gland is an enigmatic orbital gland that has been described for many tetrapods, although a consistent definition of this structure has remained elusive. In particular, an unambiguous distinction between the Harderian gland and the nictitans gland, which may both occur in the anterior aspect of the orbit of mammals, remains problematic. These glands were first distinguished in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder, a Swiss physician and anatomist. To facilitate a renewed examination of the anatomical and developmental relationships of the anterior orbital glands, we review the historical context of Harder's discovery, and provide Harder's original Latin text as well as an English translation.

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