Vascular permeability factor (VPF), also known as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a potent polypeptide regulator of blood vessel function. VPF promotes an array of responses in endothelium, including hyperpermeability, endothelial cell growth, angiogenesis, and enhanced glucose transport. VPF regulates the expression of tissue factor and the glucose transporter. All of the endothelial cell responses to VPF are evidently mediated by high affinity cell surface receptors. Thus, endothelial cells have a unique and specific spectrum of responses to VPF. Since each of the responses of endothelial cells to VPF are also elicited by agonists, such as bFGF, TNF, histamine and others, it remains a major challenge to determine how post-receptor signalling pathways maintain both specificity and redundancy in cellular responses to various agonists.