Efficient and safe methods for delivering genetic materials into cells must be developed before the clinical potential of gene therapy can be fully realized. Recently, hydrodynamic gene delivery using a rapid injection of a relatively large volume of DNA solution has opened up a new avenue for gene therapy studies in vivo. This method is superior to the existing delivery systems because of its simplicity, efficiency, and versatility. Wide success in applying hydrodynamic principles to delivery of DNA, RNA, proteins, and synthetic compounds, into the cells in various tissues of small animals, has inspired the recent attempts at establishing a hydrodynamic procedure for clinical use. In this review, we provide an overview of the theory and practice of hydrodynamic gene delivery so as to aid researchers for the use of this method in their pre-clinical and translational gene therapy studies.