To improve immune responses to influenza vaccine, a trivalent inactivated vaccine containing 60 microg of the HA of each component (A/H3N2, A/H1N1, B) was compared to a licensed vaccine containing 15 microg of the HA of each. More local and systemic reactions were reported by subjects given the high dosage but only local pain and myalgias were significantly increased. The high dosage vaccine induced a higher frequency of serum antibody increases (> or =4-fold) in both hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) and neutralization tests for all three vaccine viruses in the total group as well as subjects vaccinated and those not vaccinated the previous year. Mean titers of antibody attained, the magnitude of antibody increases and the frequencies of persons with final HAI antibody titers > or =1:32, > or =1:64, and > or =1:128 were all greater for the high dosage group in both serologic tests, for all groups, and for all vaccine viruses. These increased immune responses should provide increased protection against influenza in the elderly.