Association between depression and socio-economic status among community-dwelling elderly in Japan: the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

Health Place. 2008 Sep;14(3):406-14. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.08.007. Epub 2007 Sep 1.


This study investigated the prevalence of depression by area and socio-economic status (SES). Study participants were 32,891 Japanese elderly aged 65 and over who responded to a postal survey conducted in 15 municipalities in 2003. Depression was assessed using a short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). SES was measured using years of education and income adjusted for family size. After adjustment for age, illness, higher level of activities of daily living, sex, marital status, and self-rated health, depression was still significantly associated with lower SES and residential area. Further research should also examine the area effect on health.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Depression / classification
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / etiology*
  • Female
  • Geriatrics*
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Postal Service
  • Prevalence
  • Social Class*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires