Androgen-response elements in hormone-refractory prostate cancer: implications for treatment development

Lancet Oncol. 2007 Oct;8(10):933-9. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(07)70316-9.


Many attempts have been made to derive genetic signatures for progressive prostate cancer for both prognostic and therapeutic purposes. These investigations have resulted in the discovery of many pathways, but the signatures exhibit heterogeneity and restricted reproducibility. A thorough and disciplined analysis of genes with androgen-response elements that are expressed in progressive, castration-resistant prostate cancer is an integral step towards the development of new therapeutic or diagnostic targets. We discuss the effects of bona-fide downstream targets of the androgen receptor on cellular proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, and angiogenesis, and consider the clinical potential of these targets.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Androgens / pharmacology*
  • CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein / antagonists & inhibitors
  • CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein / physiology
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / physiology
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 / physiology
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Membrane Proteins / physiology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Receptor, PAR-1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptor, PAR-1 / physiology
  • Receptors, Androgen / physiology
  • Response Elements / physiology*


  • AR protein, human
  • Androgens
  • CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein
  • CDKN1A protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • FGF8 protein, human
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Receptor, PAR-1
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • SREBP cleavage-activating protein
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 8