Objective: To study the effects of three weight-maintenance diets with different macronutrient composition on carbohydrate, lipid metabolism, insulin and incretin levels in insulin-resistant subjects.
Methods: A prospective study was performed in eleven (7 W, 4 M) offspring of obese and type 2 diabetes patients. Subjects had a BMI > 25 Kg/m2, waist circumference (men/women) > 102/88, HBA1c < 6.5% and were regarded as insulin-resistant after an OGTT (Matsuda ISIm <4). They were randomly divided into three groups and underwent three dietary periods each of 28 days in a crossover design: a) diet high in saturated fat (SAT), b) diet rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA; Mediterranean diet) and c) diet rich in carbohydrate (CHO).
Results: Body weight and resting energy expenditure did not changed during the three dietary periods. Fasting serum glucose concentrations fell during MUFA-rich and CHO-rich diets compared with high-SAT diets (5.02 +/- 0.1, 5.03 +/- 0.1, 5.50 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, respectively. Anova < 0.05). The MUFA-rich diet improved insulin sensitivity, as indicated by lower homeostasis model analysis-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), compared with CHO-rich and high-SAT diets (2.32 +/- 0.3, 2.52 +/- 0.4, 2.72 +/- 0.4, respectively, Anova < 0.01). After a MUFA-rich and high-SAT breakfasts (443 kcal) the postprandial integrated area under curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin were lowered compared with isocaloric CHO-rich breakfast (7.8 +/- 1.3, 5.84 +/- 1.2, 11.9 +/- 2.7 mmol . 180 min/L, Anova < 0.05; and 1004 +/- 147, 1253 +/- 140, 2667 +/- 329 pmol . 180 min/L, Anova <0.01, respectively); while the integrated glucagon-like peptide-1 response increased with MUFA and SAT breakfasts compared with isocaloric CHO-rich meals (4.22 +/- 0.7, 4.34 +/- 1.1, 1.85 +/- 1.1, respectively, Anova < 0.05). Fasting and postprandial HDL cholesterol concentrations rose with MUFA-rich diets, and the AUCs of triacylglycerol fell with the CHO-rich diet. Similarly fasting proinsulin (PI) concentration fell, while stimulated ratio PI/I was not changed by MUFA-rich diet.
Conclusions: Weight maintenance with a MUFA-rich diet improves HOMA-ir and fasting proinsulin levels in insulin-resistant subjects. Ingestion of a virgin olive oil-based breakfast decreased postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations, and increased HDL-C and GLP-1 concentrations as compared with CHO-rich diet.