The prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations by salmeterol/fluticasone propionate or tiotropium bromide

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Jan 1;177(1):19-26. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200707-973OC. Epub 2007 Oct 4.


Rationale: Exacerbations are key drivers of morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Objectives: We compared the relative efficacy of the long-acting inhaled bronchodilator/antiinflammatory combination (salmeterol/fluticasone propionate) 50/500 microg twice daily and the long-acting bronchodilator (tiotropium) 18 microg once daily in preventing exacerbations and related outcomes in severe and very severe COPD.

Methods: A total of 1,323 patients (mean age, 64 yr, post-bronchodilator FEV1, 39% predicted) were randomized in this 2-year, double-blind, double-dummy parallel study.

Measurements and main results: Primary endpoint was health care utilization exacerbation rate. Other endpoints included health status measured by St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), mortality, adverse events, and study withdrawal. Probability of withdrawing from the study was 29% greater with tiotropium than salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (P = 0.005). The modeled annual exacerbation rate was 1.28 in the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate group and 1.32 in the tiotropium group (rate ratio, 0.967; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.836-1.119]; P = 0.656). The SGRQ total score was statistically significantly lower at 2 years on salmeterol/fluticasone propionate versus tiotropium (difference 2.1 units; 95% CI, 0.1-4.0; P = 0.038). Mortality was significantly lower in the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate group; 21 (3%) of patients in this group died compared with 38 (6%) in the tiotropium group (P = 0.032). More pneumonias were reported in the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate group relative to tiotropium (P = 0.008).

Conclusions: We found no difference in exacerbation rate between salmeterol/fluticasone propionate and tiotropium. More patients failed to complete the study while receiving tiotropium. A small statistically significant beneficial effect was found on health status, with an unexpected finding of lower deaths in salmeterol/fluticasone propionate-treated patients. Clinical trial registered with (NCT 00361959).

Trial registration: NCT00361959.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Aged
  • Albuterol / administration & dosage
  • Albuterol / adverse effects
  • Albuterol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Androstadienes / administration & dosage*
  • Androstadienes / adverse effects
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects
  • Bronchodilator Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Bronchodilator Agents / adverse effects
  • Disease Progression
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Combinations
  • Female
  • Fluticasone-Salmeterol Drug Combination
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Forced Expiratory Volume / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / prevention & control*
  • Scopolamine Derivatives / administration & dosage*
  • Scopolamine Derivatives / adverse effects
  • Secondary Prevention
  • Survival Rate
  • Tiotropium Bromide


  • Androstadienes
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • Fluticasone-Salmeterol Drug Combination
  • Scopolamine Derivatives
  • Albuterol
  • Tiotropium Bromide

Associated data