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Review
. 2007 Apr;32(2):138-44.
doi: 10.1007/s12016-007-0004-0.

Livedo Reticularis as a Criterion for Antiphospholipid Syndrome

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Review

Livedo Reticularis as a Criterion for Antiphospholipid Syndrome

E Toubi et al. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. .

Abstract

Many consensus meetings were organized in an attempt to improve the present criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) classification. In this regard, a high prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients was reported in association with the presence of livedo reticularis (LR). In these studies, the association between LR, migraine, and the development of thrombosis (strokes, valvular dysfunctions) was evident. During the last decade, it was strongly suggested that many clinical symptoms (LR, valvular dysfunctions) or laboratory features (thrombocytopenia) should be considered as "minor criteria" for APS. The inclusion of these clinical symptoms in the criteria for APS classification could become of additive value especially when they exist together in one patient. This review summarizes the data that question or support this idea.

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