During the last decade, clinical practice saw a rapid increase of patients with esophageal eosinophilia who were thought to have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) but who did not respond to medical and/or surgical GERD management. Subsequent studies demonstrated that these patients had a "new" disease termed eosinophilic esophagitis (EE). As recognition of EE grew, so did confusion surrounding diagnostic criteria and treatment. To address these issues, a multidisciplinary task force of 31 physicians assembled with the goal of determining diagnostic criteria and making recommendations for evaluation and treatment of children and adults with suspected EE. Consensus recommendations were based upon a systematic review of the literature and expert opinion. EE is a clinicopathological disease characterized by (1) Symptoms including but not restricted to food impaction and dysphagia in adults, and feeding intolerance and GERD symptoms in children; (2) > or = 15 eosinophils/HPF; (3) Exclusion of other disorders associated with similar clinical, histological, or endoscopic features, especially GERD. (Use of high dose proton pump inhibitor treatment or normal pH monitoring). Appropriate treatments include dietary approaches based upon eliminating exposure to food allergens, or topical corticosteroids. Since EE is a relatively new disease, the intent of this report is to provide current recommendations for care of affected patients and defining gaps in knowledge for future research studies.