The choline transporter and choline kinase enzyme frequently are overexpressed in malignancy. Therefore, positron-emitter-labeled compounds derived from choline have the potential to serve as oncologic probes for positron emission tomography. The fluorine-18 ((18)F)-labeled choline derivative fluorocholine (FCH) in particular has demonstrated potential utility for imaging of a variety of neoplasms, including those of the breast, prostate, liver, and brain. The pharmacokinetics of FCH and other choline tracers allow for whole-body imaging within minutes of injection while still achieving high tumor-to-background contrast in most organs, including the brain. These features, along with the possibility of imaging malignancies that have proved elusive with the use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography support further clinical investigations of (18)F-labeled choline tracers.