Breakfast glycemic index affects subsequent daily energy intake in free-living healthy children

Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):980-7. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/86.4.980.


Background: Experimental studies have reported that the effect of a meal's glycemic index (GI) on subsequent energy intake depends on the timing of the subsequent meal.

Objective: We examined whether the timing of the next meal after breakfast modifies the effect of the breakfast GI (GI(br)) on subsequent daytime energy intake of healthy free-living children.

Design: Analyses included 381 participants of the DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometrical Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study who had provided weighed dietary records at ages 2, 4-5, and 7 y.

Results: At all ages, among children who consumed their next meal in the early postprandial phase (after 3-4 h), children with a lower GI(br) consumed more calories throughout the remainder of the day than did children with a higher GI(br), independent of major dietary confounders. For the age groups 2, 4-5, and 7 y, energy intakes in tertiles 1 and 3 were 785 kcal (95% CI: 743-830 kcal) and 717 kcal (678-758 kcal), P for trend = 0.2; 993 kcal (941-1047 kcal) and 949 kcal (900-1000 kcal), P for trend = 0.05; 1255 (1171-1344) and 1166 (1090-1247 kcal), P for trend = 0.03, respectively. Conversely, among children consuming their next meal in the late postprandial phase (>3-4 h), subsequent daytime energy intake was not associated with GI(br).

Conclusion: This study confirms differential early and late postprandial effects of the GI(br) on subsequent daytime energy intake for free-living children at different ages. Interestingly, the apparent short-term satiating effect of a higher GI(br), in particular, persisted throughout the day, if a second breakfast was consumed midmorning.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Area Under Curve
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet Records
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / classification
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism*
  • Energy Intake / drug effects
  • Energy Intake / physiology*
  • Female
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / prevention & control
  • Postprandial Period / drug effects
  • Postprandial Period / physiology
  • Satiety Response* / drug effects
  • Satiety Response* / physiology
  • Time Factors


  • Dietary Carbohydrates