Dynamic change of histone H2AX phosphorylation independent of ATM and DNA-PK in mouse skin in situ

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Nov 30;363(4):1009-12. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.09.080. Epub 2007 Oct 1.


Histone H2AX undergoes phosphorylation on Ser 139 (gamma-H2AX) rapidly in response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by exogenous stimuli, such as ionizing radiation. However, the endogenous phosphorylation pattern and modifier of H2AX remain unclear. Here we show that H2AX is regulated physically at the level of phosphorylation at Ser139 during a hair cycle in the mouse skin. In anagen hair follicles, gamma-H2AX-positive cells were observed in the outer root sheath (ORS) and hair bulb in a cycling inferior region but not in a permanent superficial region. In telogen hair follicles, gamma-H2AX-positive cells were only detected around the germ cell cap. In contrast, following X-irradiation, gamma-H2AX was observed in various cell types including the ORS cells in the permanent superficial region. Furthermore, gamma-H2AX-positive cells were detected in the skin of mice lacking either ATM or DNA-PK, suggesting that these kinases are not essential for phosphorylation in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA / metabolism*
  • DNA-Activated Protein Kinase / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / deficiency
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Histones / metabolism*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / deficiency
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Skin / metabolism*
  • Skin / radiation effects
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / deficiency
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism*


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • H2AX protein, mouse
  • Histones
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Atm protein, mouse
  • DNA-Activated Protein Kinase
  • Prkdc protein, mouse
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases