Prognostic significance and measurement of exercise-derived hemodynamic variables in patients with heart failure

J Card Fail. 2007 Oct;13(8):672-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2007.05.004.


The peak VO2 is an important prognostic measurement in the evaluation of patients with heart failure and is used to monitor the progress of the condition, especially in selecting patients for cardiac transplantation. However, peak VO2 may be influenced by noncardiac factors such as age, sex, motivation, anemia, and muscle deconditioning. These confounding factors may diminish somewhat the prognostic power of peak VO2. Several groups have looked at exercise-derived variables beyond peak VO2 to assess whether a more direct assessment of cardiac function, using exercise-derived hemodynamic variables, may yield more precise prognostic information than standard cardiopulmonary-derived data. This article reviews the evidence that cardiac work related to exercise may enhance the prognostic value of peak VO2 in the evaluation of patients with heart failure and briefly discusses the available methods for measuring these parameters.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Output / physiology*
  • Exercise Test / methods
  • Exercise Test / standards*
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis*
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Prognosis