The effects of inhibitors of prostaglandins synthesis, indomethacin and nimesulide, or of receptor antagonists of cysteinyl-leukotrienes, MK571 or of platelet activating factor (PAF), WEB2170, were studied on the infiltration of lymphocytes (Tgammadelta, NKT, CD4, CD8 and B cells) and eosinophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in two mouse strains (C57Bl/6 and BALB/c) as well as on bronchial hyperreactivity and mucus production. It was found that indomethacin and nimesulide strongly reduced the number of all cell types analyzed in both mouse strains. MK571 did not affect Tgammadelta or CD4 lymphocytes but reduced the other populations. WEB2170 reduced all lymphocyte subpopulations in both mouse strains. Moreover, the relative numbers of the lymphocyte subsets in the airways and their response to PAF antagonist were strain-dependent. The intensity of bronchoconstriction and mucus production did not correlate with BALF cell types or numbers. The cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist inhibited eosinophil infiltration and bronchial hyperreactivity, without affecting the Tgammadelta cell subset. Since Tgammadelta cells play a major role in mucosa protection and resolution of lung inflammation, this would represent an additional benefit of cysteinyl-leukotrienes antagonism in asthma.