Background: Several types of regulators (i.e. chemokines and metalloproteinases) are considered to play a crucial role in pregnancy by local modulation of the immune system at the level of peripheral leukocytes. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in chemokines (interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1(MCP-1), cytokines regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)) concentrations in diabetic patients could affect the course of pregnancy.
Methods: The study group consisted of 65 diabetics in the first trimester of pregnancy. Some 47 pregnancies were successfully continued to delivery, 18 were terminated with spontaneous miscarriages. Twenty healthy women matched for gestational age served as a control group.
Results: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C), vascular complications and lipoproteins (cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglicerides) concentrations in maternal blood did not influence the chemokines concentrations. Lower RANTES level and higher MMP-9 concentrations were found in diabetic women. MCP-1 and RANTES levels differed significantly between pregnancies with good and poor perinatal outcome. A logistic regression model revealed that not only duration of diabetes, age of patients, HbA1C and insulin requirements, but also MMP-9,RANTES, MCP-1 and LDL-cholesterol levels seem to be involved in first trimester metabolism.
Conclusions: Our results suggest the possible role of chemokines in early pregnancy development, especially in well-controlled diabetic patients, when hyperglycaemia is unlikely to be the main reason for an unfavourable outcome. Our results show that MCP-1 and RANTES might serve as predictive factors for an unfavourable outcome in diabetic pregnancy, whereas MMP-9 seems to be a marker of immunological changes related to mild hyperglycaemia. However, the open question of how the modulation of chemokines concentrations might be applied to prevent miscarriage in diabetic patients remains.