Fibroplast growth factor (FGF-21) is a recently discovered metabolic regulator. Its pathophysiologic role in humans remains unknown. In this study, we have investigated whether or not plasma FGF-21 level was different in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-diabetic controls. We also assessed associations between plasma FGF-21 body composition and several metabolic parameters. Fasting FGF-21 levels were significantly increased in patients with T2DM compared with controls (1.82+/-0.65 VS. 1.53+/-0.60 microg/L, P<0.05). In T2DM patients, fasting plasma FGF-21 correlate negatively with fasting blood glucose ( R= -0.31, P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that FBG, plasma insulin and HOMA (IS) were independent influencing plasma FGF-21 levels. The present work suggests a potential role for FGF-21 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM.