Myocardial matrix remodeling and the matrix metalloproteinases: influence on cardiac form and function

Physiol Rev. 2007 Oct;87(4):1285-342. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00012.2007.


It is now becoming apparent that dynamic changes occur within the interstitium that directly contribute to adverse myocardial remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI), with hypertensive heart disease and with intrinsic myocardial disease such as cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, a family of matrix proteases, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), has been recognized to play an important role in matrix remodeling in these cardiac disease states. The purpose of this review is fivefold: 1) to examine and redefine the myocardial matrix as a critical and dynamic entity with respect to the remodeling process encountered with MI, hypertension, or cardiomyopathic disease; 2) present the remarkable progress that has been made with respect to MMP/TIMP biology and how it relates to myocardial matrix remodeling; 3) to evaluate critical translational/clinical studies that have provided a cause-effect relationship between alterations in MMP/TIMP regulation and myocardial matrix remodeling; 4) to provide a critical review and analysis of current diagnostic, prognostic, and pharmacological approaches that utilized our basic understanding of MMP/TIMPs in the context of cardiac disease; and 5) most importantly, to dispel the historical belief that the myocardial matrix is a passive structure and supplant this belief that the regulation of matrix protease pathways such as the MMPs and TIMPs will likely yield a new avenue of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for myocardial remodeling and the progression to heart failure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Extracellular Matrix / enzymology*
  • Extracellular Matrix / physiology
  • Gene Expression / physiology
  • Heart / anatomy & histology
  • Heart / physiology
  • Heart Diseases / enzymology
  • Heart Diseases / pathology
  • Heart Diseases / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism*
  • Myocardium / enzymology*
  • Ventricular Remodeling / physiology*


  • Matrix Metalloproteinases