Cytokine responses of intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells to non-pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic yeasts in the presence of butyric acid

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Oct;71(10):2428-34. doi: 10.1271/bbb.70172. Epub 2007 Oct 7.


Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their cell wall components, zymosan and glucan, have been shown to stimulate interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) production by intestinal epithelial cell-like Caco-2 cells pre-cultured with 10 mM butyric acid. We examined in this study whether these yeasts also altered the production of other cytokines and cyclooxygenases (COXs) by Caco-2 cells. Culturing Caco-2 cells with 10 mM butyric acid and 15% FBS for 4 days enhanced the basal levels of mRNA encoding IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, stem cell factor, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, TGF-beta3, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, COX-1, and COX-2, but not of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and TGF-beta2. The inclusion of live S. cerevisiae or C. albicans further enhanced the production of IL-8, but not of the other cytokines and COXs. The non-pathogenic yeasts, C. kefyr, C. utilis, C. versatilis, Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, used for the production of fermented foods and probiotics, and the opportunistic pathogens, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis, isolated from human tissue samples also enhanced IL-8 secretion by Caco-2 cells.

MeSH terms

  • Butyric Acid / pharmacology*
  • Caco-2 Cells
  • Candida albicans / classification*
  • Candida albicans / genetics
  • Candida albicans / pathogenicity*
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Epithelial Cells / immunology
  • Epithelial Cells / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis*
  • Interleukin-8 / genetics
  • Intestines / cytology
  • Intestines / drug effects*
  • Intestines / immunology*
  • Intestines / microbiology
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / pathogenicity*
  • Time Factors


  • Interleukin-8
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Butyric Acid