The effects of topical granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on dural healing in rats after induced cerebrospinal fluid leakage

J Neurosurg Spine. 2007 Oct;7(4):419-22. doi: 10.3171/SPI-07/10/419.


Object: Dural defects must be repaired to protect the central nervous system from contamination. Although there are various experimental and commercial substances available for this purpose, the ultimate method of watertight dural closure has yet to be discovered. In this study, the authors investigate the effects of topically applied recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on dural healing in a rat model of dural injury and cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

Methods: In this experimental model, a dural defect at the level of the L1-2 vertebrae was created in 32 Wistar rats. Sixteen animals were treated with locally applied recombinant mouse GM-CSF postoperatively, and 16 animals received normal saline. The effects of GM-CSF on dural healing, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and wound healing were assessed 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. Dural healing was evaluated histologically.

Results: Dural healing was increased in rats treated with GM-CSF compared with rats in the control group. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Cerebrospinal fluid leakage may impede healing of dural defects. Topically applied GM-CSF seems to aid in dural healing.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Topical
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dura Mater / drug effects*
  • Dura Mater / injuries*
  • Dura Mater / physiopathology
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Subdural Effusion / etiology
  • Subdural Effusion / prevention & control*
  • Wound Healing / drug effects*


  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor