Care of the critically ill and injured child has evolved over the last 20 years, with growth of regional pediatric critical care services, attendant subspecialties, and the proliferation of pediatric critical care training programs nationally. Concurrent with this evolution has been recognition of the need for specialty care of the critically ill child during air or ground transport to a regional pediatric center. The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Transport Medicine has provided standards that have been adopted by many neonatal and pediatric transport teams. Team composition varies, but all share the mission of specialized transport for critically ill and injured children in a safe and expeditious process while ultimately improving patient outcome. Specialized pediatric transport teams are costly to maintain. Declining reimbursement for specialized care and reduced profit margins have resulted in extended roles for transport team members within children's hospitals. More stringent budgetary constraints have created challenges for pediatric transport teams in our constantly changing medical environment.