A new series of potent macrocyclic urea-based Chk1 inhibitors are described. A detailed SAR study on the 4-position of the phenyl ring of the 14-member macrocyclic ureas 1a and d led to the identification of the potent Chk1 inhibitors 2, 5-7, 10, 13, 14, 19-21, 25, 27, and 31-34. These compounds significantly sensitize tumor cells to the DNA-damaging antitumor agent doxorubicin in a cell-based assay and efficiently abrogate the doxorubicin-induced G2/M and camptothecin-induced S checkpoints, indicating that the potent biological activities of these compounds are mechanism-based through Chk1 inhibition. Kinome profiling analysis of a representative macrocyclic urea 25 against a panel of 120 kinases indicates that these novel macrocyclic ureas are highly selective Chk1 inhibitors. Preliminary PK studies of 1a and b suggest that the 14-member macrocyclic inhibitors may possess better PK properties than their 15-member counterparts. An improved synthesis of 2 and 20 by using 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxycarbonyl (Teoc) to protect the amino group not only readily provided the desired compounds in pure form but also facilitated the scale up of potent compounds for various biological studies.