Biomarkers of acute kidney injury

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;48:463-93. doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.48.113006.094615.

Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition with a high risk of death. The standard metrics used to define and monitor the progression of AKI, such as serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, are insensitive, nonspecific, and change significantly only after significant kidney injury and then with a substantial time delay. This delay in diagnosis not only prevents timely patient management decisions, including administration of putative therapeutic agents, but also significantly affects the preclinical evaluation of toxicity thereby allowing potentially nephrotoxic drug candidates to pass the preclinical safety criteria only to be found to be clinically nephrotoxic with great human costs. Studies to establish effective therapies for AKI will be greatly facilitated by two factors: (a) development of sensitive, specific, and reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis/prognosis of AKI in preclinical and clinical studies, and (b) development and validation of high-throughput innovative technologies that allow rapid multiplexed detection of multiple markers at the bedside.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / diagnosis*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / physiopathology
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods
  • Humans

Substances

  • Biomarkers