The application of conditionality to coverage decisions for healthcare technologies is increasing. Coverage with Evidence Development (CED) represents a specific approach to coverage for promising technologies for which the evidence remains uncertain. CED demands that additional evidence is generated to address the sources of uncertainty and secure ongoing coverage. This study explores the conceptual and policy issues relating to CED and discusses issues involved in operationalizing CED in practice, including presenting criteria for which technologies may be most suitable for CED. This study is intended to further the debate on the use of CED as well as highlight areas that warrant further research.