We have combined the proteomic analysis of Xenopus laevis in vitro-assembled chromosomes with RNA interference and live cell imaging in HeLa cells to identify novel factors required for proper chromosome segregation. The first of these is Bod1, a protein conserved throughout metazoans that associates with a large macromolecular complex and localizes with kinetochores and spindle poles during mitosis. Small interfering RNA depletion of Bod1 in HeLa cells produces elongated mitotic spindles with severe biorientation defects. Bod1-depleted cells form syntelic attachments that can oscillate and generate enough force to separate sister kinetochores, suggesting that microtubule-kinetochore interactions were intact. Releasing Bod1-depleted cells from a monastrol block increases the frequency of syntelic attachments and the number of cells displaying biorientation defects. Bod1 depletion does not affect the activity or localization of Aurora B but does cause mislocalization of the microtubule depolymerase mitotic centromere- associated kinesin and prevents its efficient phosphorylation by Aurora B. Therefore, Bod1 is a novel kinetochore protein that is required for the detection or resolution of syntelic attachments in mitotic spindles.