Differential expression of two TEF-1 (TEAD) genes during Xenopus laevis development and in response to inducing factors

Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(8):745-52. doi: 10.1387/ijdb.072375fn.


Transcription enhancer factors 1 (TEF-1 or TEAD) make a highly conserved family of eukaryotic DNA binding proteins that activate not only viral regulatory elements but muscle specific genes and are involved in several developmental processes. In this study, we report the identification and the expression pattern of NTEF-1 (TEAD1) and DTEF-1 (TEAD3), two members of this family in Xenopus laevis. Both X. laevis NTEF-1 (XNTEF-1 or XTEAD1) and DTEF-1 (XDTEF-1 or XTEAD3) possess a 72 amino acid TEA domain characteristic of TEF-1 proteins. XNTEF-1 is a 426 amino acid protein that has 96% identity with the avian or the mammalian NTEF-1 proteins while XDTEF-1 is a 433 amino acid protein with 77 to 80% identity with the avian and mammalian DTEF-1 sequences respectively. Temporal expression analysis by RT-PCR indicated that the two genes are expressed maternally and throughout embryonic development. In the adult, the two genes are broadly expressed although they showed differences of expression between tissues. Spatial expression analysis by whole mount in situ hybridization showed that the XNTEF-1 and XDTEF-1 mRNAS were predominantly detected in eye, embryonic brain, somites and heart. In animal cap assay, the two genes are activated by bFGF but are differently regulated by BMP4, and the muscle regulatory factor Mef2d.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • DNA, Complementary / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Embryonic Development
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • MyoD Protein / metabolism
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Xenopus laevis / metabolism*


  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • MyoD Protein
  • Tead1 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factors

Associated data

  • GENBANK/EF422418