Contiguous gene deletions involving EFNB1, OPHN1, PJA1 and EDA in patients with craniofrontonasal syndrome

Clin Genet. 2007 Dec;72(6):506-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2007.00905.x. Epub 2007 Oct 16.


Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS [MIM 304110]) is an X-linked malformation syndrome characterized by craniofrontonasal dysplasia and extracranial manifestations in heterozygous females. In the majority of patients CFNS is caused by mutations in the EFNB1 gene (MIM 300035). We identified three girls with classical CFNS and mild developmental delay harboring de novo deletions of the EFNB1 gene. Applying haplotype analysis, Southern blot hybridization and array-comparative genomic hybridization, deletion of EFNB1 was found to be part of contiguous gene deletions in the patients. In one patient the deletion interval includes the genes for oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1 [MIM 300127]) and praja 1 (PJA1 [MIM 300420]). In the second patient the deletion includes OPHN1, PJA1 and the gene for ectodysplasin A (EDA [MIM 300451]). In the third patient EFNB1 gene deletion may include deletion of regulatory regions 5' of OPHN1. Previously, the OPHN1 gene has been shown to be responsible for recessive X-linked mental retardation. Although it is too early to predict the future cognitive performance of the two infant patients with contiguous gene deletions of OPHN1-EFNB1-PJA1, mild learning disabilities have been recognized in the older, third patient. It is important for genetic counseling to be aware that their male offspring may not only be carriers of CFNS but may also be affected by mental retardation and anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Base Sequence
  • Child, Preschool
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / deficiency
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • Ectodysplasins / deficiency
  • Ectodysplasins / genetics*
  • Ephrin-B1 / deficiency
  • Ephrin-B1 / genetics*
  • Female
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins / deficiency
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins / genetics*
  • Gene Deletion*
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / genetics*
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Proteins / deficiency
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Phenotype
  • Syndrome
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / deficiency
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics*


  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • DNA Primers
  • EDA protein, human
  • EFNB1 protein, human
  • Ectodysplasins
  • Ephrin-B1
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • OPHN1 protein, human
  • PJA1 protein, human
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases