IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) are related diseases characterized by deposits of IgA1-containing immune complexes in the renal mesangium. Adult patients with IgA nephropathy have aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 (galactose-deficient O-linked glycans) in the circulation and renal deposits. However, IgA1 glycosylation has not been studied in pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy. Using our quantitative lectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, we measured serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 of children with IgA nephropathy and HSPN and controls. Children with IgA nephropathy and HSPN had serum levels higher than those of healthy children or renal-disease controls with C1q nephropathy. Furthermore, lectin ELISA identified patients with HSPN whose clinical course mimicked that of IgA nephropathy. In summary, pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy and HSPN have an aberrancy in the glycosylation in IgA1 O-linked glycans that is similar to that in adults with IgA nephropathy.