Background: This study aimed to compare the oncologic results for local excision via transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and those for laparoscopic resection (LR) via total mesorectal excision in the treatment of T(2) N(0), G(1-2 )rectal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy with both treatments, incorporating a 5-year minimum follow-up period.
Methods: The study enrolled 70 patients whose malignancy was staged at admission as T(2) N(0), G(1-2 )rectal cancer located within 6 cm of the anal verge with a tumor diameter less than 3 cm. Of these patients, 35 were randomized to TEM and 35 to LR. The patients in both groups previously had undergone high-dose radiotherapy (5,040 cGy in 28 fractions over 5 weeks) combined with continuous infusion of 5-flurouracil (200 mg/m(2)/day).
Results: The median follow-up period was 84 months (range, 72-96 months). Two local recurrences (5.7%) were observed after TEM and 1 (2.8%) after LR. Distant metastases (2.8%) occurred in one case each after TEM and LR. The probability of survival for rectal cancer was 94% for TEM and 94% for LR.
Conclusions: The study shows similar results between the two treatments in terms of local recurrences, distant metastases, and probability of survival for rectal cancer.